There have been numerous papers and books on South Africa’s catastrophic era of AIDS denialism. There is much less known and written about the “when-to-start antiretrovirals (ARVs)” debate. This debate offers a fascinating look at how scientific disagreements between reasonable people, who are experts in the field, work, and how consensus evolves as evidence accumulates.
Recent advances in ART have improved the success of treating infected individuals and have provided valuable tools to prevent infection. Early ART also offers one of the most practicable components in attempting to achieve functional cures, but diagnosing and treating HIV early remains a challenge.