Malaria kills between 70,000 and 100,000 children every year in Uganda. In order to apply successful interventions to eradicate malaria, there is a continuous need to understand the epidemiology and risk factors associated with the disease. The Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in 2009 was the first nationally representative survey of malaria conducted in Uganda. The aim of the study presented here was to use this MIS to investigate the distribution of malaria infection in children under the age of 5 years old, as well as to investigate the relationship with selected socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors.
While in the past antiretroviral treatment (ART) for children aged 2-5 years was started only when the CD4 count or CD4% fell below a critical threshold, or a clinically severe event occurred, the new WHO 2013 guidelines recommend immediate treatment initiation regardless of the child’s immune status. Scientific evidence which can guide policies is sparse and conducting trials on the optimal timing of ART initiation is lengthy, costly, and ethically difficult. Instead, routinely captured observational data can be used to answer this question if the statistical analysis makes use of methods which allow a causal interpretation. One of these methods which allows causal interpretations is called “g-computation”.