HIV prevalence

Published on November 30, 2015 by

A multistage approach to adjusting for non-response when estimating HIV prevalence using survey data

In populations where most subjects know their HIV status, population-based prevalence HIV estimates can be heavily biased due to high rates of non-response to HIV testing. Inverse probability weighting could potentially be used to correct for non-response to HIV testing in order to derive sub-national level HIV statistics, especially where the data at these levels are sparse. Its usefulness can be enhanced by incorporating antenatal clinics’ HIV data, often the only source of HIV prevalence.

Short item Published on March 13, 2014

Outcomes and impact of HIV prevention, ART and TB programmes in Swaziland – early evidence from public health triangulation.

In 2011, the Ministry of Health in Swaziland joined forces with the WHO, the Global Fund and SACEMA to do the first in depth health programmes progress evaluation using triangulation from key empirical data sources. The focus was on key questions like: Given increasing coverage of ART, has ART reduced adult and/or infant mortality?; Can TB trends be related to trends in HIV prevalence, ART coverage and combined TB/HIV interventions?; Can trends in infant mortality be related to uptake of PMTCT?

Published on September 20, 2010 by

Can mixed infection explain the high prevalence of TB in crowded areas with high strain diversity and low HIV prevalence?

There are many different strains of TB. If there happen to be many strains circulating in a population, then individuals could be infected with more than one strain at a time which we define as mixed infection. This article focuses on the question whether mixed infection can explain the high prevalence of TB in some areas with overcrowding, low HIV prevalence and a high diversity in TB strains. The aim was to identify the factors that characterize mixed infection and investigate their impact on both the prevalence of TB and the proportion of mixed infection in these areas. To investigate the impact of these parameters, a mathematical model was developed for TB transmission dynamics that accounts for mixed infection.

Short item Published on June 21, 2010

Monitoring TB and HIV together

In the last 20 years the number of new tuberculosis (TB) cases had tripled in high HIV prevalence countries, and at least a third of the world’s 33.2 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are infected with TB. Approximately 80% of people with TB/HIV infections live in sub-Saharan Africa, where TB is the leading cause Read More

Short item Published on June 30, 2009

PEPFAR reduces number of AIDS deaths

The Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) which was launched in 2003 as a 5-year, $15 billion program for HIV treatment, prevention and care, has been the most ambitious initiative to address the global HIV epidemic. Recently the effect of PEPFAR on HIV-related deaths, the number of people living with HIV, and HIV prevalence Read More