The history of sub-Saharan Africa has been defined and determined to a large extent by the struggle against tropical diseases, many of them vector borne, including malaria, leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis and many others. To add to this burden our continent has now to deal with the ravages of HIV and the consequent rise in tuberculosis. In this issue of the SACEMA Quarterly we discuss some of the key problems and ways in which we might be able to address and mitigate some of the challenges that we face in this regard.
The objective of my thesis was to develop a novel, parameterised mechanistic mathematical model which describes the dynamics of parasite invasion during the initial stages of malarial infection.
Malaria kills between 70,000 and 100,000 children every year in Uganda. In order to apply successful interventions to eradicate malaria, there is a continuous need to understand the epidemiology and risk factors associated with the disease. The Malaria Indicator Survey (MIS) in 2009 was the first nationally representative survey of malaria conducted in Uganda. The aim of the study presented here was to use this MIS to investigate the distribution of malaria infection in children under the age of 5 years old, as well as to investigate the relationship with selected socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors.
In most of sub-Saharan Africa, estimates of the burden of disease due to malaria are unreliable as many people with fever do not reach public health facilities, and there are also imperfect health reporting systems in many of the countries with the largest burden. However, many general population studies exist recording the proportion of people with detectable malaria parasites. Researchers at the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP) have collated these datasets and fitted geo-spatial models to them, providing an estimate of parasite prevalence at any location along with the uncertainty in that estimate.
A collection of the twenty student talks by theme and the key-note lecture given at the SACEMA research meeting 2013.
A study conducted in Kenya, Malawi and Tanzania analysed the relationship between malaria and HIV prevalence adjusting for important socio-economic and biological cofactors. This is the first study to report malaria as a risk factor of concurrent HIV infection at the population level. Use was made of large nationally representative samples of 19 735 sexually active Read More
In the October 2, 2009 issue of PloS Computational Biology, a paper was published describing a model estimating the impact of both insecticide-treated bednets (ITN’s) and new fungal biopesticides on the transmission rates and hence prevalence of malaria. These two interventions affect mosquitoes at different ages and stages in their lifecycle. The model demonstrates that Read More
Malaria and HIV/AIDS are two of the most important infectious diseases worldwide, and although there is good evidence of a biological interaction between them, research into malaria and HIV continues to be largely separate. Furthermore, despite the fact that malaria and HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes are being scaled up, they continue to be planned Read More
In this third issue of the SACEMA Quarterly, the focus is not on HIV/AIDS, but on other infectious diseases. The first article reports on the prevention of sleeping sickness, by catching away the tsetse flies causing the disease, using baits. The second one presents the Global Fund’s approach to combating Malaria: The Affordable Medicines Facility-Malaria (AMFm), which mainly comes down to reducing the prices of malaria treatment by means of subsidy. And the last article discusses the status of tuberculosis in South Africa.
Malaria remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In sub-Saharan Africa most countries have changed their treatment policies from chloroquine or Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine-based monotherapy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). However, it is suggested that an expanded access to effective treatment is also needed in order to “gain ground” against malaria. The Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) from the Global Fund aims to reduce the price of ACTs through an innovative approach of buyer co-payment.