The HIV epidemic is becoming financially unsustainable. It is therefore essential to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different HIV treatment programmes and models so that the existing limited resources can be allocated optimally. Data are gathered periodically to measure the retention of patients on ART after treatment enrolment at the national level, though this data collection is often complicated by patients lost to follow-up. However, little work so far has assessed the performance (effectiveness and cost-effectiveness) of ART programs differing by the kind of providers and subsequently identified the “good” versus “bad” performers. Identifying the determinants of good performance for ART programmes is essential. Decision-makers will then be able to potentially improve ART delivery in countries.