I. Jean Humphrey and the ZVITAMBO Trial Over the past 40 years as a scientific researcher I have had the good fortune to work for a small number of extraordinary individuals who have produced results of some importance in the greater scheme of things. What has struck me about those results is that they have Read More
Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2) is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. HIV, in turn, increases the risk of HSV-2 transmission. This article presents the results of two studies, analyzing the interactions of HIV and HSV-2 infections and their transmission probabilities by using data from a randomized controlled trial on male circumcision conducted in Orange farm, South Africa.
In 2003 a Cochrane review concluded that male circumcision was associated with prevention of HIV, but until recently not enough evidence existed to support it as an intervention. However, with the results of three randomized controlled trials becoming available, the meta-analysis described in this article could conclude that there is now conclusive evidence that male circumcision is an effective procedure for preventing HIV acquisition.
Recently the Lancet published the results of a randomized controlled trial which failed to show the effectiveness of the vaginal microbicide gel Carraguard to protect women from becoming HIV infected. This article extensively describes the study methods and results. Furthermore, it reports on ongoing trials on microbicides similair to Carraguard, and those on microbicides that contain antiretroviral drugs (new generation).