Observational studies suggest that sexual transmission of HIV may be lower in couples in which one partner is infected with HIV and the other is not (HIV-discordant couples) if the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy (ART). If ART does confer a prevention benefit, in addition to its well established therapeutic efficacy, it may be an indication to initiate treatment earlier than currently recommended. Recently a systematic review was conducted on the issue and based on the evidence provided by one randomised controlled trial and seven observational cohort studies, ART has been shown to be a potent intervention for prevention of HIV in discordant couples. More results of the review are reported here, as well as the implications for practice and research.
The notion that concurrent sexual partnerships (having more than one partner at the same time) are especially common in sub-Saharan Africa and explain the region's high HIV prevalence is accepted by many as conventional wisdom. A systematic review that was recently published was conducted to question this theory. The quantitative and qualitative evidence offered by Read More
In 2003 a Cochrane review concluded that male circumcision was associated with prevention of HIV, but until recently not enough evidence existed to support it as an intervention. However, with the results of three randomized controlled trials becoming available, the meta-analysis described in this article could conclude that there is now conclusive evidence that male circumcision is an effective procedure for preventing HIV acquisition.